The aims of the unit are: · To provide sufficient background of the pharmacological action of different types of alkaloids. To provide experience of understanding in detail the biochemical pathways for the production of alkaloids in specific plant species. · To provide experience in the distribution, the biological activity, the chemical structures and the role of alkaloids in plants. · To provide experience of understanding in detail the biochemical pathways for the production of flavonoids in specific plant species. · To provide sufficient background of the chemical structures, natural distribution and the biological activity of the flavonoids. · To provide an introduction to natural pigments. · To force the students to communicate the knowledge they gained, to specialist and non-specialist audiences clearly and unambiguously. · To have the learning skills to allow the students to continue to study in a manner that may be largely self-directed or autonomous in the scientific field of the unit.
Organic Chemistry, Biochemistry of Secondary Metabolites
After completing the unit, attendees will be able to: · Demonstrate knowledge of the Natural Products derived biosynthetically from Shikimic Acid and their biosynthetic pathways: 1. Gallic acid and tannins 2. Tryptophan 3. Tyrosine, phenylalanine and other phenylpropanes 4. Coumarins and fouranocoumarins 5. Substances formed from phenylpropanes by shortening of the side-chain. · Demonstrate knowledge of the Natural Products biosynthetically derived from Acetate, the acylpolymalonate pathway and aromatic polyketides · Demonstrate knowledge of: 1. Physicochemical properties 2. Extraction 3. Isolation in preparative scale with different chromatographic material(polyamide, silica gel, sephadex LH-20, RP8, RP18) 4. Characterization and structure elucidation 5. Quantitation of flavonoids · Demonstrate knowledge of the Reagents and Procedures for the Ultraviolet Spectral Analysis of Flavonoids 1. Preparation of Reagent Stock Solutions and Solids 2. Procedures for Determining the Ultraviolet Absorption Spectra of Flavonoids · Demonstrate knowledge of Extraction Methods and Chromatographic Methods 1. Thin Layer Chromatography 2. Miscellaneous TLC · Demonstrate knowledge of the UV-Vis Spectra of Flavonoids(all classes) 1. UV-Vis of Flavonoids in Methanol 2. UV-Vis Spectra of Flavonoids in the Presence of NaOMe 3. UV-Vis Spectra of Flavonoids in AlCl3,AlCl3/HCl 4. UV-Vis Spectra of Flavonoids in the Presence of AcONa, AcONa/H3BO3 · Demonstrate knowledge of Anthraquinones, the acylpolymalonate and shikimic pathway of anthraquinone biosynthesis and their uses · Demonstrate knowledge of specific phenolic compounds and their uses: 1. Rutin 2. Hesperitine 3. Naringine 4. Silybin 5. Kava pyrones 6. Rotenone and Macrolides Demonstrate knowledge of Alkaloids 1. General information 2. Extraction, isolation 3. Pyridine and piperidine alkaloids 4. Tropane alkaloids 5. Quinoline alkaloids 6. Isoquinoline alkaloids 7. Indole alkaloids 8. Imidazole alkaloids 9. Steroidal alkaloids
It provides the participants with background information on: Pharmacological action of alkaloids(Pyridine and piperidine alkaloids, Tropane alkaloids, Quinoline alkaloids, Isoquinoline alkaloids, Indole alkaloids, Imidazole alkaloids). Detailed biochemical pathways for the production of alkaloids in specific plant species. Chemical structures, distribution, biological activity and role of alkaloids in plants. Detailed biochemical pathways for the production of flavonoids in specific plant species. Chemical structures, distribution and role of flavonoids in plants. Natural pigments: anthocyanins-flavonoids-other phenolic compounds and other miscellaneous natural pigments.
It provides the students with the essential background information in the field of chemistry of alkaloids, flavonoids and other phenolics through lectures.
Written and oral examination over the information and knowledge gained during the sessions of this unit. (100%)